Archive for the Fitz Lee’s Brigade Category
3rd VA Cavalry
From the War Diary of Lieutenant Colonel William R. Carter, CSA
M’ch 17: Boots & saddles sounded at 7 a.m. & Regiment soon on the road to Kelly’s ford via Brandy Station, 3rd squadron, under Cap’t Chappell, being in front & 1st under Cap’t Field in the rear. Moved at a brisk trot as far as Miller’s house & here formed in order of battle, 1 ½ miles below Brandy Station. Col. Owen called around his company commanders & asked them to do their duty & to see that their men did the same. Remaining here a few moments the Brigade moved off down the road at a brisk gallop; the 3rd Regiment being in front preceded by the sharpshooters. Soon came in sight of the enemy with their right wing resting on the river at Wheatley’s ford & their left extending a short distance beyond Brook’s house. They had a large number of dismounted sharpshooters posted behind a stone fence connecting these two places & a heavy mounted reserve drawn up in the fields & woods, on both sides of the road, branching off from Wheatley’s to Kelly’s ford. Our sharpshooters were soon engaged with theirs, and throwing down the fence about 100 yards below Brandon’s house, the Regiment came into the field & fell back to Brown’s house & in Wheatley’s field to form. Here all were met by Gen. Lee, who ordered Col. Owen to charge the enemy. This was doen in gallant style, Regiment sweeping down the fence along the road & passing through an opening between the rail fence, running at right angles across the field from Brook’s house, and the rock fence. We found it impossible to get through the stone fence to them & so the Regiment turned across the field to our left, to some straw shacks & wheeled down towards Wheatley’s ice house, hoping to be able to get at their right flank. But observing this, the enemy’s sharpshooters, who had fled from the approach of the column, returned to their posts & poured a hot fire into it as it passed & crowded into Wheatley’s houses & garden. Several of our number were wounded. On our left was the 5th Regiment, under Col. Roper, advancing to charge the enemy’s right flank. But getting to the house of G.T Wheatley, they were unable to advance because of obstructions placed in the outlet by the enemy. Blocked up here all remained a considerable time under a galling fire from the enemy posted in & around Wheatley’s houses at a range of not more than 75 yd’s. Here S’g’t G.M. Betts, company C., fell, and moving out from this position a few hundred yards, Maj. Puller of the 5th Regiment was killed. The 1st, 2nd & 4th Regiments charged the enemy as they advanced through Wheatley’s field from behind the stone wall. Here Maj. Breckenridge of the 2nd was captured — this was the first charge. We moved through Wheatley’s field into a field of Miss Wheatley (place occupied by Lampkin) & the 3rd charged again through the triangular lot in front of Lampkin’s house. But owing to the narrowness of the gate & the confusion produced by the 5th attempting to pass out at the same time, not more than 15 or 20 men followed the Col. Into the lot, who charged up to within 50 y’d’s of the fence on the west of Wheatley’s field. Finding it impossible to dislodge the enemy’s sharpshooters from behind the fence, this party retired through another gate by Lampkin’s sable. The enemy’s fire was concentrated upon these gates & they wounded several & killed J.T. Wilkins, company C, & W.W. Young, company B at this place. Maj. Pelham of the artillery fell in this field, shot in the head by a shell. This was the second charge.
Retiring from this charge we moved over on the main road leading from Brandy Station to Kelly’s ford & formed a line of battle near Caster’s run on the farm of Jas. Newby. The 1st, 5th & 3rd Regiments charged on the left of the road facing towards Kellysville; while the 2nd & 4th charged on the opposite side, making a line of the entire Brigade. The enemy formed in the edge of the woods opposite & advanced with the sharpshooters across the field & with a battery of 3 guns in Brown’s field; they were gallantly met by our sharpshooters & our Brigade remained some time exposed to a galling fire from the enemy’s sharpshooters before they were ordered to charge. Presently our artillery opened upon them& soon the order came for a simultaneous charge of the whole Brigade, commencing on the right. The 3rd commenced the charge by fours, and advancing 300 yards, were fronted into line & ordered to charge in line; but owing to the inequality of the ground, this was found impracticable & they were again ordered to charge by fours. A battery of 3 of the enemy’s guns was playing on us from the moment we commenced the charge. Some of the men passed several hundred y’d’s beyond the Battery, causing the most of the gunners to desert their pieces, & were only prevented from capturing the guns by a double fence which intervened & a heavy line of sharpshooters posted in the edge of the woods & behind the fences. Finding no impression could be made upon the enemy, we fell back to Caster’s run the point which the charge was commenced & reformed, the enemy not daring to follow us into the open fields. Ordered back on the road to within two miles of Brandy Station. Here we remained till about sunset; then ordered to follow the enemy on his retreat across the river. Marched to ½ mile of Kelly’s ford & hearing that the whole force had recrossed the river, we returned to the same camp at 12 P.M. This was the heaviest loss that our cavalry have sustained in a fight during the war. It was as follows:
Killed Wounded Missing Total
1st Regiment 1 7 0 = 8
2nd 1 18 15 = 34
3rd 4 37 3 = 44
4th 2 17 16 = 35
5th 2 9 0 = 11
Maj. Pelham Killed 1 = 1
Many of these were very slightly wounded. Those in the 3rd Regiment who were sufficiently wounded to go to Hospital & the killed are as follows: Company A.— Private J.E. Reynolds wounded seriously. Company B.— W.W. Young killed; L’t G.C. Mellen, J.B. Herbert & private A.W. West wounded. Company C.— S’g’t G.M. Betts & private J.T. Wilkins killed; Lt Jas. W. Hall wounded very seriously. Company D.— Privates Jas. E. Adams, L.A. Marston & F. Mountcastle wounded. Company E.— Corpl. Jno. R. Foster wounded in the arm. Company F.— L’t B.W. Lacy & Se’g’t Apperson wounded. Company G.-Private J.W. Bryant, H.F. Goodman wounded & private I.S. Fowler killed. Company H.— L’t Jas. V. Garner, Private Jas. Green, E. Cage & Thos. Walker wounded. Company I.—Corp’l A.A. Dance wounded. Company K.— Private Henry W. Edmonds, J.R. Cunningham, L. Scott, & C.A. Bondurant wounded. Thus ended this day. While the loss on our side was heavy, in men & horses, the enemy, in attempting to cross the river, lost more in killed than our own; and which we had to mourn the loss of some of our best men, are succeeded in preventing the enemy from accomplishing their purpose of making a raid through the country & destroying the rail road Bridge across the Rapidan. Our men with vastly inferior numbers & with horses which had not been fed in some time, held the insolent foe in check.
No feed tonight for horses or men. Wagons left for Orange C.H. at 10 a.m.
M’ch 18: Remained in same place & this evening got some corn for our horses. Wounded treated at Brandy Station & sent off to Gordonsville.
Carter, LtCol William R., CSA. Sabers, Saddles and Spurs. Shippensburg: Burd Street Press, 1998. Pages 49-54.
1st VA Cavalry
The continued successful Confederate cavalry raids behind Union lines brought a vengeful response. General William W. Averell led a 3,000-man force of Federal cavalry against Fitz Lee’s small brigade. Averell sent his troopers swarming across Kelly’s Ford on the morning of March 17. Dismounted Confederate cavalrymen in the rifle pits put up a gallant defense, but they were overwhelmed and captured or driven off. When word of the Federal advance reached Culpeper Court House, Fitz Lee ordered out every available man from the four regiments, about 800 men. The reserve in support of the pickets at the ford contested the Union advance for an hour and a half before help arrived. Major William A. Morgan, with the sharpshooters from the 1st, led the advance of the brigade.
Fitz Lee committed his regiments as they arrived, each making a mounted charge across an open field, toward the Union position behind a high stone and rail fence. The Federal dismounted men with their carbines and the artillery took a heavy toll of the Confederates, who charged up to the fence, emptying their carbines and revolvers before retiring. Each time the enemy attempted to advance, Lee sent a regiment to drive them back. In one of the mounted charges, Major John Pelham of the Stuart Horse Artillery was killed. When the Confederate artillery arrived and opened on the Federals, Lee led the mounted portion of his brigade in a charge. Averell was forced to retreat across the river.
Lee singled out Colonel Drake for praise, sating that he was “always ready at the right time and place.” Major Morgan was cited for his handling of the 1st‘s sharpshooters in the battle. Lee wrote that Captain Charles F. Jordan of the Rockbridge Dragoons and Lieutenant Rudolphus W. Cecil of the Howard Dragoons deserved to be “especially commanded for reckless daring without parallel.” He went on to laud Captain Connally T. Litchfield of the Washington Mounted Rifles and Lieutenant Gustavus W. Dorsey of the Maryland troop. All of the couriers praised for their good conduct were from the 1st: Privates John H. Owings and Otho Scott Lee of Company K, John A.K. Nightingale of Company A, and Henry Shackleford of Company G. The 1st was fortunate, losing only one man killed and seven wounded, the smallest loss in the brigade. Twebty-one horses were killed or wounded.
The Federal cavalry had served notice that they were a force to be reckoned with. Confederate valor could not always overcomethe enemy superiority in men, horses, arms, and equipment.
Rockbridge Dragoons = Company C
Washington Mounted Rifles = Company D
Howard Dragoons or Maryland Troop = Company K (Howard County, MD)
Driver, Robert J. 1st Virginia Cavalry, 2nd Edition. Lynchburg: H.E Howard, Inc., 1991. Pages 55-56.
HEADQUARTERS LEE’S CAVALRY BRIGADE,
March 23, 1863.
SIR: I have the honor to submit the following report of an encounter on the 17th instant between my brigade and a division of enemy’s cavalry, certainly not less than 3,000 mounted men, with a battery of artillery. My first intimation of their approach was in a telegram received at 11 a.m. on 16th, from headquarters Army of Northern Virginia. At 6 p.m. scouts reported them at Morrisville, a little place 6 miles from Kelly’s Ford. At 1 a.m. another report informed me that the enemy had encamped at that place, coming from three different directions.
I that night re-enforced my picket of 20 sharpshooters by 40 more. I regret to say that only about 11 or 12 of them got into the rifle-pits in time for the attack of the enemy (owing to an unnecessary delay in carrying their horses to the rear), which commenced about 5 a.m. The force in the pits, under Capt. James Breckinridge, of the Second, behaved very gallantly, holding in check a large force of the enemy, mounted and dismounted, for an hour and a half, killing and wounding 30 or 40 of them. I also ordered the remaining sharpshooters of the brigade, under that very efficient officer, Major [W. A.] Morgan, First Virginia, to move from their camps by daybreak to a point on the railroad where the road turns to Kelly’s, half a mile from the railroad bridge and 3½ from Kelly’s, and the rest of the command was ordered to be in readiness to move at the shortest notice. At that time a force was reported to be at Bealeton, supposed to be their advance guard, and it was uncertain whether they would attempt to cross at Kelly’s, the railroad bridge, or move on toward Warrenton.
The report that enemy’s attack was made at Kelly’s never reached me; and the first intimation I received from that point was at 7.30 a.m., to the effect that they had succeeded in crossing, capturing 25 of my sharpshooters, who were unable to reach their horses. I moved my command at once down the railroad, taking up a position to await their approach, ordering my baggage wagons and disabled horses to the rear, toward Rapidan Station. Some time elapsing, and they not advancing, I determined to move upon them, and marched immediately for Kelly’s. First met the enemy half a mile this side of ford, and at once charged them. Their position was a very strong one, sheltered by woods and a long, high stone fence running perpendicular to my advance. My men, unable to cross the fence and ditch in their front, wheeled about, delivering their fire almost in the faces of the enemy, and reformed again, facing about under a heavy fire from their artillery and small-arms. The Third in this charge was in front, and First Lieut. [Bernard] Hill Carter, jr., was very conspicuous in his behavior. From that time it was a succession of gallant charges by the various regiments, and once by the whole brigade in line, whenever the enemy would show their mounted men, they invariably falling back upon their artillery and sheltered dismounted skirmishers. Their total advance was 2 miles from the ford. At that time my artillery arrived, and they were driven back, recrossing the river about 7.30 p.m., with us in close pursuit.
My whole command acted nobly; sabers were frequently crossed and fences charged up to, the leading men dismounting and pulling them down, under a heavy fire of canister, grape, and carbine balls. Had I my command in the order it arrived in this enervating section of country, and not weakened by the absence of four squadrons on picket, guarding a line stretching from Griffinsburg, on the Sperryville turnpike, to Richard’s Ford, and by the large number of horses unfit for duty by exposure to the severe winter, with a very limited supply of forage, I feel confident the defeat of the enemy would have been changed into a disorderly rout, and the whole brigade resupplied with horses, saddles, and bridles.
Commanding officers of the detachments from the various regiments engaged mention in their reports as deserving especial attention–
In the Fifth: Private William J. Haynes, Company F (badly wounded); Private A. R. Harwood, Company E; Private Henry Wooding, Company C (especially commended; seized the colors when the horse of the color-bearer was shot, and carried them bravely through the fight); Sergeants [John W.] Morecocke and [George B.] Ratcliffe, and Private George [W. E.] James, Company H. In the Fourth: Captains [W. B.] Newton and [Charles] Old, Lieutenant [J. D.] Hobson, and Adjutant [Peter] Fontaine (seriously wounded). Sergeant [W. J.] Kimborough, of Company G, deserves particular notice; wounded early in the day, he refused to leave the field. In the last charge he was the first to spring to the ground to open the fence; then dashing on at the head of the column, he was twice sabered over the head, his arm shattered by a bullet, captured and carried over the river, when he escaped, and walked back 12 miles to his camp. Lieutenant-Colonel [William H.] Payne, commanding, also mentions Privates Joseph Gilman, J. R. Gilman, Poindexter, Redd, Sydnor, Terry, and N. Priddy.
In the Third: Captain [William] Collins, Company H; Lieuts. [Bernard] Hill Carter, jr., and John Lamb, of Company D; Lieutenant [H. W.] Stamper, of Company F; Lieut. R. T. Hubbard, jr., Company G, and First Lieutenant [J. W.] Hall, of Company C (was twice wounded before he desisted from the charge, and when retiring received a third and still more severe wound, and was unable to leave the field). Adjt. H. B. McClellan is also particularly commended for his gallantry; also Acting Sergt. Maj. E. W. Price, Company K; Private [C. A.] Keech, Company I, and Bugler Drilling. Sergeant [G. M.] Betts, of Company C; Privates [W. W.] Young, Company B; [F. S.] Fowler, Company G, and [J. T.] Wilkins, of Company C, died as became brave men–in the front of the charge, at the head of the column.
In the Second, the commanding officer reports that where so many behaved themselves with so much gallantry he does not like to discriminate.
In the First: Captain [C. F.] Jordan, Company C, and Lieutenant [R.] Cecil, Company K, specially commended for reckless daring without a parallel.
As coming under my own observation, I particularly noticed Col. T. L. Rosser, of the Fifth, with his habitual coolness and daring, charging at the head of his regiment; Col. James [H.] Drake, of the First, always ready at the right time and place; Col. T. H. Owen, of the Third, begging to be allowed to charge again and again; Lieut. Col. W. H. Payne, of the Fourth, unmindful of his former dreadful wound, using his saber with effect in a hand-to-hand conflict, and the imperturbable, self-possessed Major Breckinridge, of the Second, whose boldness led him so far that he was captured, his horse being shot. Col. T. T. Munford, of the Second, I regret to say, was president of a court-martial in Culpeper Court-House, and did not know of the action in time to join his command until the fight was nearly over. I also commend for their behavior Captain [W. W.] Tebbs, of the Second, and Captain [C. T.] Litchfield and Lieutenant [G. W.] Dorsey, of the First; also Maj. W. A. Morgan, of the First.
My personal staff–Major [R. F.] Mason, Captains [J. D.] Ferguson and [S.] Bolling, Dr. J. B. Fontaine, and Lieutenants [H C]Lee, [G. M.] Ryals, and [Charles] Minnigerode–rendered great service by their accurate and quick transmission of orders and by their conduct under fire. Surgeon Fontaine’s horse was killed under him, and my own was also shot, but through the generosity of Private John H. Owings, Company K, First Virginia Cavalry, attached to my headquarters, was quickly replaced by his.
The conduct of Couriers Owings, Lee, Nightengale, and Henry Shackelford deserves the highest praise.
The enemy’s loss was heavy. Besides leaving a number of his dead and wounded on the field, he carried off a large number on horses and in ambulances. We captured 29 prisoners–1 captain, 2 lieutenants, and 26 privates. My own loss was 11 killed, 88 wounded, and 34 taken prisoners, making an aggregate of 133. In horses, 71 killed, 87 wounded, 12 captured, making aggregate loss of horses 170.
Among the killed I deeply regret to report Major [J. W.] Puller, of the Fifth, and Lieutenant [C. S.] Harris, of the Fourth, both gallant and highly efficient officers–a heavy loss to their regiments and country.
In conclusion, I desire especially to state that Maj. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart joined me before the fight commenced; was on the field the whole day; assisted immensely by his sagacious counsels, large experience, and by his usual daring and conspicuous example in turning the fortunes of the day in our favor. We share with him the anguish and deep grief felt at the loss of the noble Pelham, of his staff, an officer of the brightest promise for the future.
Major [Lewis F.] Terrell, of General Stuart’s staff, beside being active on the field, assisted the gallant [Captain James] Breathed in the management of the artillery. Captain [Harry W.] Gilmer, Twelfth Virginia Cavalry, a volunteer for the occasion on the major general’s staff, I also commend for his marked bravery and cool courage. I append a recapitulation of my loss.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
General R. H. CHILTON,
Asst. Adjt. and Insp. Gen., Army of Northern Virginia.
Recapitulation of the loss of Brig. Gen. Fitz. Lee’s Cavalry Brigade in the engagement near Kellysville, Va., March 17, 1863.
O Officers. C Wounded.
M Men. D Taken by enemy.
A Aggregate loss E Aggregate loss of horses.
B Killed. F Taken prisoners.
Killed. Wounded. —-F—- —Horses.—
Command. O M O M O M A B C D E
Field and staff 1 …. …. …. …. …. 1 1 1 …. 2
1st Regiment Virginia Cavalry …. 1 …. 7 …. …. 8 7 13 1 21
2d Regiment Virginia Cavalry …. 1 2 16 1 14 34 6 20 …. 26
3d Regiment Virginia Cavalry …. 4 6 31 …. 3 44 26 24 1 51
4th Regiment Virginia Cavalry 1 1 1 16 …. 16 35 15 16 10 41
5th Regiment Virginia Cavalry 1 1 2 7 …. …. 11 16 13 …. 29
Battery …. …. …. …. …. …. …. …. …. …. ….
Total 3 8 11 77 1 33 133 71 87 12 170
HEADQUARTERS LEE’S CAVALRY BRIGADE,
Near Culpeper Court-House, Va., March 26, 1863.
[General R. H. CHILTON:]
SIR: I find in looking over a retained copy I have of the fight near Kelly’s Ford, the latter portion of one of the sentences reads, “and a long, high stone fence, running perpendicular to my advance.” Be kind enough to substitute in the copy sent you for the word “perpendicular” “at right angles.” I think it is the more correct form of expression. Will you also be kind enough to add in a recent letter I wrote concerning the justice of paying soldiers for horses permanently disabled by wounds, &c., the words ” and unavoidably captured by the enemy?”
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF NORTHERN VIRGINIA,
March 28, 1863.
Respectfully forwarded to General Cooper, with the request that he will cause the desired alterations to be made. The papers alluded to were forwarded yesterday and to-day.
By order of General Lee:
W. H. TAYLOR,
GENERAL ORDERS No. 10.
HDQRS. LEE’S CAVALRY BRIGADE,
March 21, 1863.
The general commanding the brigade announces to his command his high gratification and proud appreciation of their heroic achievements upon the ever-memorable 17th instant. The enemy crossed the Rappahannock at Kelly’s Ford with a force of certainly not less than 3,000 cavalry and a battery of artillery. Confident in numbers and equipments, it was their purpose to penetrate the interior, to destroy our railroads, to burn, rob, and devastate, and to commit their customary depredations upon the property of our peaceful citizens. Soldiers of the brigade! you have been taught a lesson, and the enemy have also profited. Rebel cavalry have been taught that Yankee (would-be) horsemen, notwithstanding their numbers, can be confronted and hurled back, and their infamous purposes, however well planned in security, in the open, fair field frustrated. Rebel cavalry have been taught that a determined rush upon the foe is the part of sound policy as it is the part of true courage. Rebel cavalry have taught an insolent enemy that, notwithstanding they may possess advantages of chosen position, superiority in numbers and weapons, they cannot overwhelm soldiers fighting for the holiest cause that ever nerved the arm of a freeman or fired the breast of a patriot. You have taught certain sneerers in our army that placing a Southern soldier on horseback does not convert him into a coward; and, last and not least, you have confirmed Abolition cavalry in their notions of running. You have repeatedly charged an enemy sheltered by stone fences and impassable ditches, in the face of his artillery and volleys from thousands of his carbines. You checked his triumphant advance, and caused a precipitate retreat, with the legacy of his dead and wounded. Captain Breathed and his brave artillerists have my sincere thanks. They behaved, as they always do, with great gallantry. To the noble spirits who have fallen we pay the mournful homage of silent grief. The blood of such men as Pelham, Puller, Harris, and other kindred souls is a libation to our liberty. Virginia witnesses their sacrifice upon the holy altar of her independence.